Illicit Financial Flows and Tax Justice
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Inequality and tax evasion are growing both
within and between countries, while the rich on all continents funnel
their wealth into secret bank accounts scattered around the world.
This erodes the public sector, starves countries of funds needed
for development, and drives up deficits.
The trend is worldwide as multinational companies shuttle money and
subsidiaries between countries to minimize taxes, while the ultra-rich and organized crime hide their assets in untraceable shell accounts. But the toll in Africa is enormous, with losses estimated at $50 billion to $80 billion a year due to illicit capital flight.
One recent study, for example, estimated at least US$60.8 billion in losses due to transfer pricing in or out of 5 African Countries (Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda), from 2002-2011.
The good news is that governments and multilateral agencies around
the world are waking up to this issue, and the pressure for transparency
in financial reporting is growing. The same technical mechanisms that
have been used to track funds of drug traffickers and terrorist networks can now be used, if there is political will, to track
monies lost to illicit financial flows and tax evasion.
The Stop the Bleeding Africa Campaign led by six continent-wide
African civil society networks is seeking support from African and
global organizations as it continues to lobby African and other
governments to stop illegal and illegitimate financial flows that
are draining resources for the continent.
Sign up to the Campaign and find more background on the websites of the
Campaign and of
Tax Justice Network - Africa.
USAN: Top Ten Questions on IFF and Africa |
Resources on IFF and Africa |
Top Ten Books on IFF and Tax Evasion |
National and Global Inequality
Most recent bulletins on illicit financial flows and tax justice
April 17, 2017 Africa/Global: New Reports Show Massive Tax Losses
On April 15, "tax day" in the United States, tens of thousands of
demonstrators in over 200 communities around the country marched to
demand that President Trump make public his tax returns (
http://taxmarch.org/home/). Protesters also denounced his use of
taxpayer funds for his personal profit and military escalation while
his administration continues its assault on spending for urgent
public needs at home and around the world. There is no sign that the
President will comply with the demand for transparency. But the
award of a Pulitzer Prize last week to the international consortium
that exposed the Panama Papers was only one indicator that the drive
to expose tax evasion, tax avoidance, and corruption around the
world will continue.
April 3, 2017 South Africa: Rising Outcry for Zuma to Go
"We call on Ministers and leaders of the ANC who care about the
future of democracy and the Constitution to speak up and call on the
President, in the best interests of the country, to step down. We
call on the parliamentary leadership of the ANC, supported by all
opposition parties, to insist that parliament be recalled
immediately to debate a motion of no-confidence, proposed by the ANC
leadership in parliament. We call on all members of Parliament to
unite and support a motion of no-confidence." - Statement by the
Nelson Mandela Foundation and the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation, March
March 28, 2017 Liberia: Mining, Displacement, and the World Bank
"The roots of the New Liberty Gold project stretch back before 1995,
when a resource extraction license was issued by former warlord
turned president Charles Taylor to a mysterious company called
KAFCO. The permit changed hands a few times and, today, Avesoro holds its
permit via a wholly-owned subsidiary, Bea Mountain Mining Corp – a
company created in 1996 by Keikurah B. Kpoto, one of Taylor's
closest associates. In 1998, foreign interests bought Bea Mountain
Mining. The beneficiaries of the sale were well hidden. According to
a document IRIN procured, three quarters of its capital belonged to
a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. The rest was
held by owners of bearer shares." - IRIN investigative report, March
February 28, 2017 Africa/Global: Open Data for Tax Justice
"Multinational companies typically publish global, consolidated
accounts - and international accounting standards now allow these to
roll into one all financial information on the substance of their
economic activities, or at best to provide regional figures. This
means that country-level information on profits, revenues, taxes,
borrowings and employees, for example, are not provided. ... As the
name suggests, the longstanding proposal for country-by-country
reporting (CBCR) would make multinational companies break down and
publish their results for each country. This is essential for
citizens to know what companies and their affiliates are doing where
they live, and what contributions they are making." - Open Data for
Tax Justice announcement
February 7, 2017 Africa/Global: Transparency Setback, African Agendas
In the world of large multinational corporations, secrecy is more
than the rule rather than exception. Despite this reality, there
have been some advances in recent years, including U.S. legislation
and regulations requiring disclosure of payments by U.S. oil, gas,
and mining companies to foreign governments. Last week, the U.S.
Congress revoked this Security and Exchange Commission rule, a year
before it was actually to be implemented. Although comparatively
little noticed in comparison to the tumult around White House
actions, this was an indication that the Republican Congress as well
was determined to reverse even modest steps to fight corporate
corruption and other similar abuses.
January 23, 2017 South Africa: State Capture & Energy Policy
"Eskom, accused of overly cozy ties with the Guptas featured heavily
in the report, with 916 mentions. ... it's Eskom's chief executive,
Brian Molefe, who comes out looking the worst. According to cell
phone records, Molefe had 58 phone calls with the eldest of the
Gupta brothers, Ajay Gupta, between August 2015 and March 2016, just
before the Guptas purchased South Africa's Optimum coal mine for
2.15 billion rand ($160 million). Eskom, which prepaid the Gupta's
Tegeta Exploration and Resources 600 million rand for coal, had been
accused of helping to finance the Guptas' coal mine deal through
preferential treatment." - Quartz Africa
November 28, 2016 Africa/Global: Overcoming the Shadow Economy
"Knowledge of beneficial ownership of companies and bank accounts is
fundamental, both to ensure taxation and also to prevent and
prosecute crime and the money laundering that so often is associated
with it. ... Corporations, trusts, and foundations are creations of
the state--and as such, they have no inalienable rights. They are
created to facilitate societal welfare, and to ensure that they do
so, they need to be globally regulated--regulated in ways which
ensure full knowledge of beneficial ownership and full compliance
with all tax laws." - Joseph Stiglitz, in testimony to European
Parliament Panama Papers inquiry
October 18, 2016 Ghana: New Debt Trap
"Ghana is in a debt crisis. Despite having had significant amounts
of debt canceled a decade ago, the country is losing around 30% of
government revenue in external debt payments each year. Such huge
payments are only possible because Ghana has been able to take on
more loans from institutions such as the International Monetary
Fund (IMF), which are used to pay the interest on debts to previous
lenders, whilst the overall size of the debt increases. "
September 21, 2016 USA/Africa: From #BlackLivesMatter to #StopTheBleeding Africa
The direct and indirect toll resulting from illicit financial flows
reflects the unequal value today's world places on human lives by
race and place ... Reflecting the legacy of the slave trade and
colonialism, the African continent and Black people around the world
are disproportionately located at the bottom of a global system that
systematically sucks wealth upward, toward the top "1 percent." ...
there can be no doubt that the number of deaths caused by these
structural economic inequalities rivals or likely even exceeds those
lost due to bombs, guns, or machetes.
September 14, 2016 Gabon: High Demand for Democracy, Short Supply
"Among 36 African countries surveyed in 2014/2015, Gabon ranks at or
near the bottom on every indicator of election quality and fairness,
according to citizen responses collected in September and October 2015.
... Gabon ranks dead last in public trust in the election commission.
... [at the same time] Gabon ranks near the top in favoring multiparty
competition and term limits on presidents, as well as in disapproving of one-party and one-man
rule." - Afrobarometer
June 22, 2016 Africa/Global: "Stop the Bleeding" Updates
"A new report by Tax Justice Network-Africa and ActionAid says that
East African countries (Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda) are
losing approximately $2 billion a year of revenue each year by
granting tax incentives to multinational companies. ... According to
Yaekob Metena, ActionAid Tanzania's country director, 'Though there
have been improvements in recent years in addressing the issue,
governments in East Africa continue to give away domestic resources
in tax incentives, funds that could pay for the regions' education
and health needs and meeting the development objectives.'"
Jun 2, 2016 Liberia/Global: Financial Secrecy at Work
"Finance Uncovered, working with an anonymous Liberian journalist,
has exposed a little-known offshore business registry that has
created tens of thousands of anonymous companies and registered them
to a non-existent address in Monrovia, Liberia's capital city.
Although these companies are technically a creation of Liberian law,
management of the registry is based in the United States and appears
to have the support of the US government. ... Our investigation has
discovered over half a billion pounds of high-value London property
registered to Liberian offshore companies."